This view dominated public and political discourse in the immediate post-World War II decades.
Environmental Protection Agency EPA to proceed diligently with full implementation of the law to achieve clean air for our citizens. It is essential that Congress and the EPA fulfill their responsibilities to facilitate implementation by the states. NCSL makes the following recommendations: Implementation of the CAAA is the responsibility of the states.
Communication with state legislators is of utmost importance because only state legislators can enact enabling legislation for state programs and appropriate state A review of first monetary policy overburdened.
Congress and the EPA should regularly and directly work with state legislators during federal action on air quality issues. EPA should work closely with states to assist them in developing all regulations, technical assistance and funding necessary for compliance.
Federal grants authorized under the CAAA provide financial resources to the states for development and implementation of air quality programs and other clean air responsibilities. Congress and the EPA must ensure that states continue to receive adequate funding to cover all costs of program management including monitoring.
Because the states have existing air pollution control programs to administer with current federal funding, any new air quality programs or responsibilities mandated by Congress or EPA should be accompanied by additional federal funding.
NCSL urges EPA to provide as much administrative flexibility as the law allows in order to achieve clean air goals in the most cost effective and efficient manner. Cost-effectiveness should be permitted as a factor in state selection of transportation control measures and emissions control strategies.
NCSL urges Congress to amend the law to replace statutory deadlines for state action with language that provides a specific time period for state compliance after document publication. NCSL urges EPA to act expeditiously to enact the required regulations necessary to reduce emissions from federally preempted sources.
NCSL urges Congress to develop and implement sustainable management policies which will reduce fuel loadings on federal lands, thereby reducing emissions from catastrophic wildfires and improving carbon sequestration on those lands. EPA should provide training opportunities for states to help develop the skills and understanding needed to properly implement the CAAA.
Congress and EPA should take maximum advantage of tools and strategies to reduce emissions from mobile sources including but not limited to promoting alternative fuels and encouraging strict exhaust standards for light duty vehicles. Federal highway legislation should be made consistent with CAAA objectives.
NCSL urges the adoption of national energy, transportation and other policy that emphasizes energy conservation in order to help achieve the goals of the CAAA. This should include strengthening of emission standards for automobiles as technologies improve, more energy-efficient lighting, buildings, and transportation, and more research and use of alternative forms of energy.
NCSL urges the federal government to expeditiously apply the same CAAA requirements to federal facilities and motor vehicle fleets that are required for state facilities and fleets.
Multi-Pollutant Legislation NCSL further believes that national efforts to fully implement the CAAA, to maintain and enhance air quality at the local, state and national level requires Congressional action on multi-pollutant legislation. NCSL urges Congress to act expeditiously on multi-pollutant legislation to provide certainty in a time of limited federal and state resources and to enhance the impact of this federal program which is implemented at the state level.
New legislation enacted by Congress should ensure the ability of all stakeholders to move forward with air pollutant emission reductions, enhance the environment and protect public health while providing a stable planning environment for energy providers and consumers. New federal standards should maintain and renew the commitment to statutory authority for states to enact state environmental standards that are more stringent than their minimum federal counterparts.
New federal standards should acknowledge the existence of state programs and agreements in accord with these standards and should not preempt their continued implementation. New federal standards should be accompanied by adequate federal funding and technical assistance that are essential to state efforts to implement complete and adequate state programs that fully comply with these standards.
New federal standards should provide states with maximum flexibility to apply the law effectively to all sources of emissions and ensure achievement of clean air goals in the most cost effective, timely and efficient manner for each state.
New federal standards should allow states to maintain all of the enforcement tools available to states under the CAA to ensure compliance with state implementation of federal regulations. New federal standards should allow for regional air planning coordination among states whenever they agree to address and act on issues with regional air quality implications.
New Source Review Program NCSL urges the EPA to reform the NSR program to achieve improvements that enhance the environment and increase production capacity, while encouraging efficiency, fuel diversity and the use of resources without weakening the requirements intended to reduce emissions from new or modified sources of air pollution.
Routine maintenance, repair or replacement activities which are not major modifications should not trigger NSR requirements. Such rigid federal requirements may fail to account for technological advances in emissions testing programs and equipment.
Alternative Fuels and Alternatively Fueled Vehicles NCSL urges the federal government to encourage an increase in the research, development and promotion of alternative fuels derived from domestic sources and alternatively fueled vehicles, including their commercial production and use, and to devote federal funds to evaluate the environmental and economic impacts of alternative fuels and alternatively fueled vehicles.
The primary purpose of these efforts should be reducing the level of air pollutants and other emissions, reducing U.
NCSL further urges Congress to develop policies to encourage domestic manufacture of the infrastructure and equipment necessary to produce alternative fuels. NCSL recommends the exploration and evaluation of all forms of alternative domestic fuels and alternatively fueled vehicles in order to reduce the incidence of toxic air emissions.
NCSL recommends caution in promoting the replacement of traditional fuels with alternative fuels that could result in other pollution problems. NCSL supports a federal Clean Alternative Fuels program that includes but is not necessarily limited to methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols, reformulated gasoline, ultra-low sulfur diesel, biodiesel, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, and hydrogen or other power source including electricity.
However, NCSL recommends that this program take into account other uses of source products, i. Furthermore, NCSL urges Congress to improve the availability of source materials from our federal lands in accordance with multiple use mandates.
NCSL is concerned that the further development of alternative domestic fuels, alternatively fueled vehicles and conservation devices will depend, at least in the near future, upon the continued availability of tax credits designed to encourage investment in these technologies.
While tax credits and exemptions are important to the creation of an alternative fuels market, NCSL recognizes their negative fiscal impact on the overall federal budget, as well as inequities in the Highway Trust Fund. Encourage the use of alternative fuels through incentives that will increase the production and development of new vehicles with alternative fuels capability and vehicle conversion, in lieu of alternative fuels tax exemptions.Malcolm Holland, president of $ million Veritex Community Bank in Dallas, Texas, worries about the future of community banks as a result of increasing federal regulations and growing compliance costs.
$ , was released by the government to the public due to UN collaboration and end-of-year donation the sum of $ 50, was sent to each card It is advisable that you contact us now to receive.
The September/October issue previews state legislative elections and what voters will face on statewide ballot measures. Also read about efforts to halt sexual harassment in legislatures, NCSL’s new leadership and much more. A summary of the August report by the National Bioethics Advisory Commission, or NBAC, regarding research involving human participants, including the need for changes in the oversight and regulation of investigators and institutional review boards, or IRBs, the importance of informed consent and protection of vulnerable individuals, and the need for research ethics education.
The chapter concludes with a review of key points and a transition to evaluation of interventions and monitoring of results. ). The model consists of ten major steps, the first five of which are related to the assessment phase.
The remaining five deal with selection, design and development, implementation and finally, monitoring and. As discussed in the latest OECD Economic Outlook, the prolonged undershooting of inflation targets, despite massive monetary policy stimulus and stronger economic growth and lower unemployment, raises issues about the appropriateness of current inflation targeting frameworks in advanced economies.