One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I d. It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their neighbours, due to the lack of sources surviving from this period.
Ottoman Empire Turkish empire which endured from c. Centered on the region of modern Turkey, it spanned three continents at its greatest territorial extent, covering the area from Hungary in the north to Aden in the south and from Algeria in the west to the Iranian frontier in the east.
Through its vassal state of the Khanate of the Crimea, Ottoman power also extended into the Ukraine and southern Russia. Its name derives from its founder, the Turkish Muslim warrior, Osman, who established the dynasty which ruled over the empire throughout its history.
Ottoman Expansion The early Ottoman state was a small principality in north-west Anatolia, one of many such petty states which grew out of the wreckage of the former Seljuk state of Rum. Historians differ about the relative importance of its two main characteristics, which were the tribal traditions of the Turko-Mongol warriors who dominated the state, and the influence of Islam.
The scholar Paul Wittek, who emphasized Islam, claimed that the rise of the Ottoman state was due to its attraction to ghazis, or fighters of the holy war jihadwho joined the Ottomans because they were positioned to play the leading role in the struggle against the Christian Byzantine Empire to the west.
Incessant warfare and judicious alliances brought the Ottomans success. In about they captured Bursa, which became their capital, and by the Byzantines had been expelled from Anatolia.
At the same time the Ottomans extended their territories southwards and eastwards at the expense of other Turkish princedoms, and in took Ankara in central Anatolia. In the same year the Ottomans occupied Gallipoli Gelibolu on the European side of the strait of the Dardanelle, which became the base for their subsequent drive into south-eastern Europe.
The Ottoman defeat at the hands of the Central Asian conqueror Timur Lang Tamerlane in proved to be only a temporary setback to the Ottomans who quickly rebuilt, consolidated, and extended their power.
The tide of conquest continued to flow throughout the 16th century. Under Sultan Selim I the Grim first the Safavids of Iran were defeated Chaldiran, and eastern Anatolia added to the empire and then in the Mamelukes of Syria and Egypt were beaten and their territories also annexed.
During his reign Iraq was added to the empireOttoman control was established in the eastern Mediterranean, and, via the annexation of Algiers and the activities of the Barbary Coast corsairs, Ottoman power was thrust into the western Mediterranean. Also Suleiman carried Ottoman arms far into Europe: Belgrade was captured in and the Hungarians defeated at the Battle of Mohacs in In Suleiman unsuccessfully laid a siege of Vienna.
Ottoman Institutions The main business of the Ottoman state was war, as the foregoing recital of its conquests suggests, and its most important institution was its army. The early Ottoman forces had consisted of Turkish cavalry sipahis paid by grants of government revenues usually land revenues known as timars.
The more land that was conquered the more income for Turkish Muslim ghazis. But the ghazi light horsemen were not sufficient for regular warfare, and from the midth century the Ottomans began to recruit separate salaried troops from mercenaries, slaves, prisoners of war, and from the midth century by a levy of Balkan Christian youths the devshirme.
From these new forces the kapikulli emerged the celebrated, highly disciplined Ottoman infantry known as the Janissaries, who were the main factor in the Ottoman military successes from the later 15th century onwards.
The Ottomans also created specialist corps of artillery and engineers. Ottoman administration was shaped by the needs of these forces. Provincial administration was essentially a system of military districts ruled by officials whose primary duty was to summon the timariots to campaigns.
Much of the work of the central administration was devoted to raising the money and supplies necessary for the kapikulli forces. Roads and bridges were constructed to facilitate the movement of troops.
In its heyday the administration was very efficient. The central administration consisted of three main parts: Most important of these were the qadis, who looked after some local administration and criminal law.
Before the 17th century freeborn Muslims served principally as sipahis or in the religious institution; the rest of the state administration as well as the kapikulli forces was composed primarily of Christian converts to Islam who were recruited in the manner of the kapikulli military forces.
To contemporary Europeans it seemed that the Ottoman state was unique in that it lacked an aristocracy and was run by men chosen by merit and wholly loyal to the sultan. The administration employed a language the Ottoman Turkish language which was Turkish in grammar and largely Arabic in vocabulary, and written in the Arabic script.
Most of the other functions which are performed by modern states were left to non-governmental institutions. The population of the Ottoman empire was mixed linguistically, culturally, and by religion.
The majority of the population of the European provinces were Christians of the Orthodox Church many of whom accepted the Ottoman rule because it was less burdensome than Roman Catholic domination.
Muslims also predominated in some towns. In the Asian provinces the reverse was true: The people were organized in two ways. For economic purposes they were grouped in tribes, villages, and guilds in towns.Turkish literature: Turkish literature, the body of written works in the Turkish language.
The Orhon inscriptions represent some of the earliest extant writing in Turkish. A masterpiece of the terkibbend genre is the elegy for Sultan Süleyman I written by Bâkî in the 16th century. Other Ottoman stanzaic forms utilize varying numbers of.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Religion: Sunni Islam, Madhab: Hanafi, Creed: Maturidi.
Why did the Ottoman Empire enter in a period of decline in 17th century? The most obvious reason is the fact that every expansion has an end, and every empire has a life span. In the recent years, the thesis of Ottoman decline is disputed.
By the early 19th century, the Ottoman Empire had become moribund. provides a quantitative analysis of twentieth century Turkish literature using forty novels of forty authors ranging from Fazlı; Patton, Jon M.
"Change of word characteristics in 20th century Turkish literature: A statistical analysis". Journal of Quantitative. Like many other empires in human history, the Ottoman Empire seems to come from nowhere.
Ottoman armies consisted of salaried kapıkulu regulars, topraklı regional irregulars, short-term levied called miri-askeris, yerli-neferats consisting of the entire Muslim population of a town called up for a local defence, and the gönüllüyan, a general mass of tribal irregulars. Like many other empires in human history, the Ottoman Empire seems to come from nowhere. Often the rise of a new hegemon is a result of the vacuum of power that an old empire leaves behind after entering a period of political and cultural decline. Why did the Ottoman Empire enter in a period of decline in 17th century? The most obvious reason is the fact that every expansion has an end, and every empire has a life span. In the recent years, the thesis of Ottoman decline is disputed.
Often the rise of a new hegemon is a result of the vacuum of power that an old empire leaves behind after entering a period of political and cultural decline. Turkish folk literature is an oral tradition deeply rooted, in its form, in Central Asian nomadic traditions.
However, in its themes, Turkish folk literature reflects the problems peculiar to a settled (or settling) people who have abandoned the nomadic lifestyle.