Saul McLeodupdated Behaviorism refers to a psychological approach which emphasizes scientific and objective methods of investigation.
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The Behavioral Approach Human behavior is learned, thus all behavior can be unlearned and newbehaviors learned in its place. Behaviorism is concerned primarily with theobservable and measurable aspects of human behavior.
Therefore when behaviorsbecome unacceptable, they can be unlearned. Behaviorism views development as acontinuous process in which children play a relatively passive role.
It is alsoa general approach that is used in a variety of settings including both clinicaland educational. Behaviorists assume that the only things that are real or at leastworth studying are the things we can see and observe.
We cannot see the mind ,the id, or the unconscious, but we can see how people act, react and behave. From behavior we may be able to make inferences about the minds and the brain,but they are not the primary focus of the investigation.
What people do,not what they think or feel, is the object of the study. Likewise the behaviorist does not look to the mind or the brain to understandthe causes of abnormal behavior.
He assumes that the behavior representscertain learned habits, and he attempts to determine how they are learned.
The material that is studied is always behavior. Because behavioristsare not interested in the mind, or its more rarified equivalents such as psycheand soul, inferences about the conditions that maintain and reinforce humanbehavior can be made from the study of animal behavior.
Animal research hasprovided a very important foundation for the behavioral approach. Thebehavioral researcher is interested in understanding the mechanisms underlyingthe behavior of both normal individuals and those with problems that might bereferred as "mental illness".
When the behavioral model is applied tomental illness, it tends to be used for a wide variety of presenting problems. It is perhaps most effective in treating behavioral disorders and disorders ofimpulse control, such as excessivedrinkingobesity, or sexual problems.
Behavioral approaches may bequite useful in treatment of anxiety and have occasionally been helpful in themanagement of more severe mental disorders such as schizophrenia Early Theorists: Pavlov Ivan P.
He first won greatdistinction for his research on the physiology of th digestive system. Pavlovencountered a methodological problem that was ultimately to prove moreimportant and more interesting than his physiological research. For Pavlov, all behavior was reflexive. But how do such behaviors differfrom the behavior commonly called "instinctive"?
Instinctivebehavior is sometimes said to be motivated. The animal has to be hungry, to besexually aroused, or to have nest-building hormones before these kinds ofinstinctive behavior can occur.
But Pavlov concluded that there seems to be nobasis for distinguishing between reflexes and what has commonly been thought ofas non reflexive behavior. As a psychologist, Pavlov was concerned with thenervous system, and specifically the cerebral cortex, not with any lawfulnessthat he might find in behavior.
At a more abstract level, Pavlov thought that all learning, whether ofelicited responses in animals or of highly conceptual behaviors in humans, wasdue to the mechanisms of classical conditioning. We now believe it to be wrong,but it is none the less one of the great ideas of our culture.
Bolles Watson John B.Behaviorism is a worldview that assumes a learner is essentially passive, responding to environmental stimuli.
The learner starts off as a clean slate (i.e. tabula rasa) and behavior is shaped through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement .
Behaviorism is an approach to psychology based on the proposition that behavior can be researched scientifically without recourse to inner mental states. It is a form of materialism, denying any independent significance for mind. Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals.
It assumes that all behaviors are either reflexes produced by a response to certain stimuli in the environment, or a consequence of that individual's history, including especially reinforcement and punishment, together with the individual's current motivational state and controlling stimuli.
Behavioral Approach The behavioral approach explained: Introduction to the branches of behaviorism in psychology, assumptions of the approach and an evaluation.
The majority of all behaviour is learned from the environment after birth (takes the nurture side of the nature vs nurture debate), and so psychology should investigate the laws and products of learning. The Behavioral Approach Human behavior is learned, thus all behavior can be unlearned and newbehaviors learned in its place.
Behaviorism is concerned primarily with theobservable and measurable aspects of human behavior.