If it is put forth at once, as interest and affection would naturally dictate, while the world is yet ringing with his fame and his friends yet grieving for his loss, when every one is eager to know more Of a man of whom they had heard so much, the sentiments it excites will be more vivid, and the treatment it receives will be more gentle it will be read more widely, and handled more tenderly; enmity will be silenced and criticism softened by the recency and the sadness of the severance.
Contact hypothesis Gordon Allport developed this hypothesis, which states that contact with members of another social group in the appropriate circumstances can lead to a reduction of prejudice between majority and minority group members.
Have relatively equal status Be able to cooperate with each other Recognize an authority or law that supports interactions between the two groups. Realistic conflict theory Realistic Conflict Theory RCTalso known as Realistic Group Conflict Theory RGCTis a model of intergroup conflict that describes how conflict and prejudice between groups stems from conflicting goals and competition for limited resources.
Campbell and was later elaborated on in classic experiments by Muzafer Sherif and Carolyn Wood Sherif. The boys in these groups then competed with each other and elicited hostile outgroup beliefs until a superordinate, cooperative goal was imposed that required the groups to work together resulted in decreased feelings of hostility.
Social identity approachSelf-categorization theoryand Social identity theory In the s and 80s, Henri Tajfel and John Turner proposed two connected theories of social identity, self-categorization theory and social identity theorythat together form a method for understanding the psychological processes underlying how individuals make sense of their identities and group membership.
Researchers have focused on developing theoretical frameworks for understanding how to effectively reduce intergroup conflict and prejudice. The intervention resulted in reduced implicit bias up to two months after the intervention was administered.
Increasingly, more researchers are exploring the effects of how the intersection of identities affect individual and group psychological processes. Effectively managing teams and group identities in the workplace   Understanding the psychological processes behind political and ideological polarization   Further studying cross-cultural communication   Notable Figures [ edit ] Main article: Kurt Lewin Kurt Lewin is considered to be one of the founding fathers of social psychology and made major contributions to psychological research.
The theory behind this formula, which emphasizes that context shapes behavior in conjunction with an individual's motivations and beliefs, is a cornerstone of social psychological research. Gordon Allport The American social psychologist Gordon Allport is considered to be one of the pioneers of the psychological study of intergroup relations.
Especially influential is Allport's book The Nature of Prejudicewhich proposed the contact hypothesis and has provided a foundation for research on prejudice and discrimination since the mids. Muzafer Sherif and Carolyn Sherif Muzafer Sherif and Carolyn Wood Sherif performed multiple notable experiments on the subject in the midth century including the Robbers Cave experiments ; these experiments formed the basis for realistic conflict theory.
Solomon Asch Solomon Asch's work on conformity in the s also helped shape the study of intergroup relations by exploring how the social pressures of group membership influence individuals to adhere their behavior, attitudes, and beliefs to group norms.
Henri Tajfel and John Turner psychologist British psychologists Henri Tajfel and John Turner developed social identity theory and later self-categorization theorypioneering the social identity approach in psychology in the s and 80s.
Tajfel and Turner were among the first psychologists to study the importance of social group membership and explore how the salience of an individual's group membership determined behavior and beliefs in the group context.
Lee Ross Lee Ross has conducted research on several psychological phenomena closely related to intergroup relations including the fundamental attribution errorbelief perseveranceand most recently naive realism - the idea that individuals believe they see the world objectively and that those who disagree with them must be irrational or biased.
Susan Fiske Susan Fiskealong with her colleagues Amy CuddyPeter Glick, and Jun Xu, developed the stereotype content model which states that stereotypes and intergroup impressions are formed along two dimensions: It follows that social groups that compete for real or perceived resources such as money or political power are considered low on warmth while social groups that are high-status e.
Claude Steele Claude Steele and his colleagues Steve Spencer and Joshua Aronson are known for studying stereotype threat - the situational pressure one feels when they are at risk of confirming a negative stereotype about their group. The IAT is used to test the strength of an individual's implicit automatic associations between mental representations and is commonly used in intergroup research to test implicit bias.
Recently, the validity of the IAT as a measure of implicit bias has been called into question. Jim Sidanius Jim Sidanius and Felicia Pratto developed Social Dominance Theorywhich states that most social groups are organized into hierarchies within developed societies. Jennifer Richeson Jennifer Richeson studies racial identity, social inequalityand interracial relations with a focus on understanding the psychological processes behind reactions to diversity.
She has shown that police officers tend to identify black faces as criminals more often than white faces,  that criminal defendants with more stereotypically black features were more likely to receive harsher sentences including the death penalty,  and that when people think of black juvenile offenders they tend to perceive all juvenile offenders as more adult, resulting in higher levels of punishment.Social Judgment and Intergroup Relations by Muzafer Sherif, Donald Granberg (Editor), Gian Sarup (Editor) starting at.
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Schnelle Lieferung, auch auf Rechnung - ph-vs.com Social Judgment and Intergroup Relations: Essays in Honor of Muzafer Sherif is a stimulating collection which paints a crisp and fascinating picture of social psychology during its decades of growth into a mature science.
With his important contributions in the study of social norms, attitudes, self concept, group relations, and other areas, Muzafer Sherif was a key figure in the ph-vs.com: Donald Granberg. Like many of the ‘greats’ of social psychology, Muzafer Sherif is frequently cited in the textbooks for his most famous research – on the autokinetic effect, and the Boys’ Camp Studies.
At the same time, his wider intellectual and political perspective, and his vision of the discipline as a. Social Judgment and Intergroup Relations: Essays in Honor of Muzafer Sherif is a stimulating collection which paints a crisp and fascinating picture of social psychology during its decades of growth into a mature science.
With his important contributions in the study of social norms, attitudes, self concept, group relations, and other areas, Muzafer Sherif was a key figure in the discipline.2/5(1).
Sherif, Muzafer Born in Turkey, Muzafer Sherif built a productive career as an experimental social psychologist. Upon receiving his master’s degree at Istanbul University, he continued his studies in the United States, earning a master’s degree at Harvard in and a PhD at Columbia in