Factors affecting national integration in india

Read this comprehensive essay on the various problems of national integration in India! India is a country of immense diversity.

Factors affecting national integration in india

The second was a policy of indirect rule, where the British assumed suzerainty and paramountcy over princely states, but conceded to them sovereignty and varying degrees of internal self-government. The British took the view that because they had been established directly between the British crown and the princely states, they could not be transferred to the newly independent dominions of India and Pakistan.

The British government therefore decided that paramountcy, together with all treaties between them and the princely states, would come to an end upon the British departure from India. A few British leaders, particularly Lord Mountbattenthe last British viceroy of Indiawere also uncomfortable with breaking links between independent India and the princely states.

The development of trade, commerce and communications during the 19th and 20th centuries had bound the princely states to the British India through a complex network of interests.

Mountbatten was also persuaded by the argument of Indian officials such as V. Menon that the integration of the princely states into independent India would, to some extent, assuage the wounds of partition.

Factors affecting national integration in india

The result was that Mountbatten personally favoured and worked towards the accession of princely states to India following the transfer of power, as proposed by the Congress. Some, such as the rulers of Bikaner and Jawharwere motivated to join India out of ideological and patriotic considerations, [25] but others insisted that they had the right to join either India or Pakistan, to remain independent, or form a union of their own.

An important factor was the lack of unity among the princes. The smaller states did not trust the larger states to protect their interests, and many Hindu rulers did not trust Muslim princes, in particular Hamidullah Khanthe Nawab of Bhopal and a leading proponent of independence, whom they viewed as an agent for Pakistan.

The resultant inability to present a united front or agree on a common position significantly reduced their bargaining power in negotiations with the Congress. The latter two were respectively the political and administrative heads of the States Departmentwhich was in charge of relations with the princely states.

The princes also believed that he would be in a position to ensure that independent India adhered to any terms that might be agreed upon, because Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Patel had asked him to become the first Governor General of the Dominion of India.

He declared that the British Government would not grant dominion status to any of the princely states, nor would it accept them into the British Commonwealthwhich meant that the states would sever all connections with the British crown unless they joined either India or Pakistan.

He engaged in a personal dialogue with reluctant princes, such as the Nawab of Bhopal, who he asked through a confidential letter to sign the Instrument of Accession making Bhopal part of India, which Mountbatten would keep locked up in his safe. It would be handed to the States Department on 15 August only if the Nawab did not change his mind before then, which he was free to do.

The Nawab agreed, and did not renege over the deal. The princely states must therefore accede to either India or Pakistan.

Rajagopalachariargued that as paramountcy "came into being as a fact and not by agreement", it would necessarily pass to the government of independent India, as the successor of the British. Unlike the Political Department of the British Government, it would not be an instrument of paramountcy, but a medium whereby business could be conducted between the states and India as equals.

Two key documents were produced. The first was the Standstill Agreementwhich confirmed the continuance of the pre-existing agreements and administrative practices.

The second was the Instrument of Accessionby which the ruler of the princely state in question agreed to the accession of his kingdom to independent India, granting the latter control over specified subject matters.

Factors affecting national integration in india

The states which had internal autonomy under the British signed an Instrument of Accession which only ceded three subjects to the government of India—defence, external affairsand communications, each defined in accordance with List 1 to Schedule VII of the Government of India Act India is a country with innumerable diversities, an entity composed of many communities, races classes, languages and sub­cultures.

In any such nation, there are many obstacles to the achievement of 5/5(1). Factors affecting the performance of community health workers in India: a multi-stakeholder perspective a systematic review.

Country Case Studies and Recommendations for Integration into National Health Systems.


and the United States also showed similar factors affecting the work performance of CHWs. These common factors are: CHW's.

Essay on National integration for Children and Students

Read this comprehensive essay on the various problems of national integration in India! India is a country of immense diversity. Race, language, religion and . The political integration of these territories into India was a declared objective of the Indian National Congress, and the Government of India pursued this over the next decade.

Through a combination of factors, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and V. P. Menon convinced most of the rulers of the various princely states to accede to India. "Factors Which Promote National Integration" Essays and Research Papers So, the national integration of India invariably depends on the integrity of its citizens.

Long and Short Essay on National Integration in English

It is the individuals who constitute a society or a nation. Society or nation is nothing without its individuals. Factors Affecting National Integration. National Integration and Cohesion National integration is a process of achieving national cohesion, stability, prosperity, strength, and feelings of being united as a Words 5 Pages.

Political integration of India - Wikipedia