Etymology[ edit ] The name "Kuching" was already in use for the city by the time Brooke arrived in It was perhaps derived from the Malay word for cat, "kucing" or from Cochinan Indian trading port on the Malabar Coast and a generic term in China and British India for trading harbour. The settlement was renamed to "Sarawak proper" during the kingdom expansion.
Booting and Reboot computing Booting is the process of starting a computer, specifically with regard to starting its software. The process involves a chain of stages, in which at each stage a smaller, simpler program loads and then executes the larger, more complicated program of the next stage.
It is in this sense that the computer "pulls itself up by its bootstraps", i. Booting is a chain of events that starts with execution of hardware-based procedures and may then hand-off to firmware and software which is loaded into main memory.
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Booting often involves processes such as performing self-testsloading configuration settings, loading a BIOSresident monitorsa hypervisoran operating systemor utility software. The computer term bootstrap began as a metaphor in the s. In computers, pressing a bootstrap button caused a hardwired program to read a bootstrap program from an input unit.
The computer would then execute the bootstrap program, which caused it to read more program instructions. It became a self-sustaining process that proceeded without external help from manually entered instructions. As a computing term, bootstrap has been used since at least The simplest environment will be, perhaps, a very basic text editor e.
Using these tools, one can write a more complex text editor, and a simple compiler for a higher-level language and so on, until one can have a graphical IDE and an extremely high-level programming language.
Historically, bootstrapping also refers to an early technique for computer program development on new hardware. The technique described in this paragraph has been replaced by the use of a cross compiler executed by a pre-existing computer. Bootstrapping in program development began during the s when each program was constructed on paper in decimal code or in binary code, bit by bit 1s and 0sbecause there was no high-level computer language, no compilerno assembler, and no linker.
A tiny assembler program was hand-coded for a new computer for example the IBM which converted a few instructions into binary or decimal code: This simple assembler program was then rewritten in its just-defined assembly language but with extensions that would enable the use of some additional mnemonics for more complex operation codes.
The enhanced assembler's source program was then assembled by its predecessor's executable A1 into binary or decimal code to give A2, and the cycle repeated now with those enhancements availableuntil the entire instruction set was coded, branch addresses were automatically calculated, and other conveniences such as conditional assembly, macros, optimisations, etc.
Compilers, linkers, loaders, and utilities were then coded in assembly language, further continuing the bootstrapping process of developing complex software systems by using simpler software. The term was also championed by Doug Engelbart to refer to his belief that organizations could better evolve by improving the process they use for improvement thus obtaining a compounding effect over time.
His SRI team that developed the NLS hypertext system applied this strategy by using the tool they had developed to improve the tool.
Bootstrapping compilers The development of compilers for new programming languages first developed in an existing language but then rewritten in the new language and compiled by itself, is another example of the bootstrapping notion.
Using an existing language to bootstrap a new language is one way to solve the " chicken or the egg " causality dilemma. Installation computer programs During the installation of computer programs it is sometimes necessary to update the installer or package manager itself.
The common pattern for this is to use a small executable bootstrapper file e. Sometimes the bootstrapper also installs other prerequisites for the software during the bootstrapping process.
Bootstrapping node A bootstrapping node, also known as a rendezvous host,  is a node in an overlay network that provides initial configuration information to newly joining nodes so that they may successfully join the overlay network.
Discrete event simulation A type of computer simulation called discrete event simulation represents the operation of a system as a chronological sequence of events. A technique called bootstrapping the simulation model is used, which bootstraps initial data points using a pseudorandom number generator to schedule an initial set of pending events, which schedule additional events, and with time, the distribution of event times approaches its steady state —the bootstrapping behavior is overwhelmed by steady-state behavior.
Artificial intelligence and machine learning[ edit ] Main articles: Bootstrap aggregating and Intelligence explosion Bootstrapping is a technique used to iteratively improve a classifier 's performance.
Seed AI is a hypothesized type of artificial intelligence capable of recursive self-improvement. Having improved itself, it would become better at improving itself, potentially leading to an exponential increase in intelligence. No such AI is known to exist, but it remains an active field of research.
Seed AI is a significant part of some theories about the technological singularity:FAO's work in land and water is relevant to several dimensions of sustainable development, such as the governance and management of food production systems; the provision of essential ecosystem services; food security; human health; biodiversity conservation; and the mitigation of, and adaptation to, climate change.
Introduction. This Antiterrorism module should be read in association with the Risks During Foreign Travel module.
The latter deals with the protection of sensitive information and routine safety procedures during foreign travel. EU citizens have a right to live in any EU country and can cross borders with ease. The Commission wants to build a European Union area of justice, which will make it easier for citizens to exercise their rights and allow businesses to make full use of the EU single market.
A question I regularly get when presenting the vSphereDSC module, is why would you use DSC to configure your vSphere environment? They are already automating their vSphere environment through PowerCLI, why would they need to change that?
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