While controversial, the scientific theory that some insects have in fact taken on protective coloring to camouflage themselves in an industrially altered habitat is an apt metaphor for our current environmental predicament. The light-colored moth predominated in the population, presumably because it blended with the white birch trunks and the light lichen on oak trees. However, decades after the start of the Industrial Revolution, it was observed in Manchester, England, that the dark form of the peppered moth began to predominate the population, as pollution from the surrounding factories killed the lichen and covered the birch trees with soot.
A Guide to Locke's Essay Simple Ideas Locke used the word " idea " for the most basic unit of human thought, subsuming under this term every kind of mental content from concrete sensory impressions to abstract intellectual concepts.
Explicitly disavowing the technical terms employed by other philosophical traditions, he preferred simply to define the idea as "whatsover is the Object of the Understanding when a Man thinks. He did commonly refer to them as being "in the Mind," both when we are conscious of them and when they are stored in memory, he regarded this as no more than a spatial metaphor.
Locke was interested in these immediate objects of perception only because they point beyond themselves.
Thus, the crucial feature of ideas for Locke was not what they are but rather what they do, and the epistemic function of an idea is to represent something else.
For since the Things, the Mind contemplates, are none of them, besides it self, present to the Understanding, 'tis necessary that something else, as a Sign or Representation of the thing it considers, should be present to it: And these are Observation reflection essay.
Thus, in Book II of the Essay, Locke embarked on an extended effort to show where we get all of the ideas that we do so obviously possess. An adequate genetic account will explain, at least in principle, how human beings acquire the ability to think about anything and everything.
Let us then suppose the Mind to be, as we say, white Paper, void Observation reflection essay all Characters, without any Ideas; How comes it to be furnished?
Whence comes it by that vast store, which the busy and boundless Fancy of Man has painted on it, with an almost endless variety? Whence has it all the materials of Reason and Knowledge? To this I answer, in one word, From Experience: In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and from that it ultimately derives it self.
Observing children reveals that their capacity to think develops only gradually, as its necessary components are acquired one by one. No individual idea is invariably present in every human being, as one would expect of an innate feature of human nature, and even if there were such cases, they could result from a universally-shared experience.
Everything that occurs to us either arrives directly through experience, or is remembered from some previous experience, or has been manufactured from the raw materials provided solely by experience.
We can only think about things we're acquainted with in one or the other of two distinct ways: Our Observation employ'd either about external, sensible Objects; or about the internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and reflected on by our selves, is that, which supplies our Understandings with all the materials of thinking.
These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring. We acquire ideas of sensation through the causal operation of external objects on our sensory organs, and ideas of reflection through the "internal Sense" that is awareness of our own intellectual operations.
As the rest of Book II is designed to show, these two sources provide us with all of the ideas we can ever have. Newborn infants, Locke supposed, are first aware of the vivid experiences of their own hunger or pain.
Then, by further experience, they acquire a supply of sensory ideas from which they can abstract, learning to distinguish among familiar things. Only later do they attend to their reflective experience of mental operations in order to acquire ideas of reflection.
Having defective organs of sense, artificially restricting experience, or inattentively observing what we have can all limit our possession of mental contents. Since simple ideas are acquired only by experience, anything we do not experience is literally inconceivable to us.
Most of these are uniquely produced in the mind through the normal operation of just one of the organs of sense.
Our ideas of colors, sounds, smells, tastes, and heat, Locke supposed, are acquired respectively through our eyes, ears, noses, tongues, and skin. Lacking the appropriate organ in any of these cases would wholly prevent our having any of the characteristic ideas of that sense.
With normal sensory organs, we come to have so many simple ideas of sensation that we don't bother to invent words naming all of them. According to Locke, certain special simple ideas are acquired by two different senses. Space, extension, figure, motion, and rest are all presented to us both in sight and in touch; they are therefore among the most commonly received of all our ideas of sensation.
All of them represent primary qualities of sensible objects and serve significant roles in science and ordinary life. Things that can be both seen and touched seem most obviously real to us.
But is it correct to suppose that one and the same idea can be acquired from either of two distinct senses? Since simple ideas of sensation cannot be acquired through defective sensory organs, on Locke's view, it should be impossible to acquire the visual idea of motion from tactile sources alone.
In a passage added to the Essay's second edition, Locke agreed with Molyneux on a view confirmed by twentieth-century empirical research that the answer must be no. Although we use the same words to designate ideas of shape and motion whether they have come from sight or from touch, only "an habitual custom" associates ideas from distinct senses with each other.
In a few, even more special instances, simple ideas are produced in us by reflection as well as sensation. These are ideas that are invariably present in the mind in association with every other object of thought, no matter what its source.
According to Locke, such ideas of both sensation and reflection include pleasure, pain, power, existence, and unity. Pleasure and pain, as we'll see later, play a special role in motivating us to exercise the volitional power behind all human actions, of mind and body.The Theater of Insects.
Notes from the Studio. figure 1. There is a flicker of movement caught by the corner of my eye. I pause long enough from one of those questionably imperative tasks of the day, to ponder a minuscule, seemingly insignificant insect.
If one carefully looks at the overlooked, a . Hire a highly qualified essay writer to cater for all your content needs. Whether you struggle to write an essay, coursework, research paper, annotated bibliography or dissertation, we’ll connect you with a screened academic writer for effective writing assistance.
Field Observation Reflection Paper. Kelli Jordan. Manchester College.
EDUC Introduction to Teaching. Jordan 2 The best way for someone to determine if they really would like to go into a certain field observation at the high school was with a first year teacher in geometry and while he enjoyed. The purpose of a field report in the social sciences is to describe the observation of people, places, and/or events and to analyze that observation data in order to identify and categorize common themes in relation to the research problem underpinning the study.
Throughout my class lectures and discussions in many of my classes, I recall one of my professors accenting the fact that teachers need to be flexible in their schedule and need to conform to the changes that are associated with the career. How to Write a Critical Essay. A critical essay is an analysis of a text such as a book, film, article, or painting.
The goal of this type of paper is to offer a text or an interpretation of some aspect of a text or to situate the text in.