She kept score at his games, coached his hitting, and bucked him up when he lost. Ripken did not mention, as Duffield had, the food, clothing, barbering, and schooling that his mother took care of—that went without saying. He noted instead the emotional support and companionship she provided.
It contrasts with traditional parent-to-child research on consumer socialization Carlson and Grossbartby examining aspects of reverse socialization.
Background An increasing number of children have access to the Internet. Children are in most U. Yet, children also have Internet experiences outside their homes. For instance, besides using PCs at home 36 percentmany teenagers use them at school 49 percent and elsewhere 66 percent; Tapscott More generally, the so-called Net Generation ages has had life-long exposure to PCs and digital technology.
Thus, many children are more comfortable with this technology and learn to use it at a faster rate than their parents. In some cases, children may surpass their parents in Internet knowledge and skill levels, due to their greater comfort levels with new technology, faster learning rates, and opportunities to learn about the Internet outside the home.
Insights on these matters may expand knowledge about consumer use and consumer socialization related to the Internet. As Maignan notes, they see it as: However, these roles may be less differentiated and even be reversed if the parent is disposed to learn from the child Peters ; Brim It is most likely to occur when children possess new or recently accepted views, knowledge, skills, or behaviors that parents have not acquired.
This idea is consistent with the expectation that children may be agents of social change in terms of digital media Tapscott Mead describes societal and cultural conditions that lead to reverse socialization.
Prefigurative culture develops when people are faced with unfamiliar and significantly changed circumstances, as when a new era unfolds. In such situations, elders are limited in adaptability by knowledge and experiences that are tied to the past. The youth in a prefigurative culture primarily focus on the present and future and are less bound to the past than their elders.
Consequently, young people and their elders have different perspectives, due to their differing frames of reference. Thus, children in a prefigurative culture may lead the way rather than follow in the footsteps of their elders.
In these circumstances, major changes and resocialization of adults may result from actions of the young Bell and Harper For example, Sussman and Steinmetz note that historical trends, events, and phenomena, which offer each generation unique experiences, can have a major impact on the structure and meaning of parent-child interactions and relationships.
New technologies that are often linked with cultural change are examples of such phenomena Mead They are awash in the unknown and their negative and positive potentials create new ambiguities, complexities, fears and expectations that can trigger social change Venkatesh and Vitalari The digital revolution and Internet are a case in point.
Arguably, they may create a significant reversal in the parent-child knowledge hierarchy. For the first time in many families, children may have more expertise than parents about an innovation that is central to societyCdigital media.
Observers suggest that children are more comfortable, knowledgeable, and literate than their parents with regard to digital media Sussman and Steinmetz ; Tapscott Thus, children may bring the new technological culture into the traditional family landscape Negroponte In such a prefigurative society, resocialization or reverse socialization is likely.
Some observers argue that these conditions lead adults to rely on children for information about, and help with, the new technology Peters ; Campbell ; Tapscott In terms of this study, an implication of these observations is that children may teach parents about the Internet.
However, this influence may not occur in all families, because some parents may be pleased but others may feel alienated if children learn things that they do not know about the Internet Papert Language Brokering Interestingly, in discussing prefigurative society and its social and technological changes, Mead refers to adults as immigrants in time and children as the first generation in a new country.
Immigrant children often learn a new language and culture faster than their parents, due to experiences at school and with peers. Thus, they may socialize thei parents by teaching them and by doing tasks for them in the new language.
Some children who act as language brokers may become decision makers in the family, rather than just translators. They convey important cultural information, about school, government, and business procedures, in interactions with teachers, neighbors, friends, and others.
Yet, research suggests that effects of language brokering are varied.Bookmark. College–Level Sociology Curriculum For Introduction to Sociology.
Prepared by the American Sociological Association Task Force on a College Level Introduction to Sociology Course. The Course * Summary Course Outline * Course Narrative.
The Course. Purpose: The College-Level Sociology course is designed to . American culture emphasizes the small, voluntary group, and the spareness of early American settlement encouraged private life. But through roughly the nineteenth century, more Americans discovered and joined in a vibrant public life on city streets, in department stores, at amusement parks, and in movie houses.
identity and socialization factors inﬂuence the culture-speciﬁc consumption behaviors of Asian American young adults, in general as well as in speciﬁc situational settings. Socialization also refers to the learning of information, cognitive processes, values, attitudes, social roles, self-concepts, and behaviors that are generally accepted--or expected--within one or many segments of American society (Berger and Luckmann, ; Dorr, ).
A summary of Gender Socialization in 's Socialization. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Socialization and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. Metaphors for Culture used in consulting, OD, intercultural communication.
Edward Hall's ideas and metaphors. Culture = models, templates. Culture is the medium we live in, like the air we breathe.