We write letters of apology, letters of congratulations, letters of introduction, letters of love and letters of business in addition to others.
Her reign lasted for 63 years and seven months, a longer period than any of her predecessors. Definitions that purport a distinct sensibility or politics to the era have also created scepticism about the worth of the label "Victorian", though there have also been defences of it.
He saw the latter period as characterised by a distinctive mixture of prosperity, domestic pruderyand complacency  — what G. Trevelyan similarly called the "mid-Victorian decades of quiet politics and roaring prosperity". The Act abolished many borough seats and created others in their place, as well as expanding the franchise in England and Wales a Scottish Reform Act and Irish Reform Act were passed separately.
Minor reforms followed in and Her government was led by the Whig prime minister Lord Melbournebut within two years he had resigned, and the Tory politician Sir Robert Peel attempted to form a new ministry.
It proved a very happy marriage, whose children were much sought after by royal families across Europe. However, a disastrous retreat from Kabul in the same year led to the annihilation of a British army column in Afghanistan.
Inthe Great Famine began to cause mass starvation, disease and death in Ireland, sparking large-scale emigration;  To allow more cheap food into Ireland, the Peel government repealed the Corn Laws.
Peel was replaced by the Whig ministry of Lord John Russell. The goal was to ensure that Russia could not benefit from the declining status Victorian writing the Ottoman Empire,  a strategic consideration known as the Eastern Question.
On its conclusion in with the Treaty of ParisRussia was prohibited from hosting a military presence in the Crimea. During —8, an uprising by sepoys against the East India Company was suppressed, an event that led to the end of Company rule in India and the transferral of administration to direct rule by the British government.
The princely states were not affected and remained under British guidance. Society and culture Evangelicals, Utilitarians and reform The central feature of Victorian era politics is the search for reform and improvement, including both the individual personality and the society.
First was the rapid rise of the middle class, in large part displacing the complete control long exercised by the aristocracy. Respectability was their code—a businessman had to be trusted, and must avoid reckless gambling and heavy drinking. Second the spiritual reform closely linked to evangelical Christianity, including both the Nonconformist sects, such as the Methodists, and especially the evangelical or Low Church element in the established Church of England, typified by Lord Shaftesbury — Starting with the anti-slavery movement of the s, the evangelical moralizers developed highly effective techniques of enhancing the moral sensibilities of all family members, and reaching the public at large through intense, very well organized agitation and propaganda.
They focused on exciting a personal revulsion against social evils and personal misbehavior. They were not moralistic but scientific. Their movement, often called "Philosophic Radicalism," fashioned a formula for promoting the goal of "progress" using scientific rationality, and businesslike efficiency, to identify, measure, and discover solutions to social problems.
The formula was inquiry, legislation, execution, inspection, and report. Evangelicals and utilitarians shared a basic middle-class ethic of responsibility, and formed a political alliance.
The result was an irresistible force for reform. Even more important were political reforms, especially the lifting of disabilities on nonconformists and Roman Catholics, and above all, the reform of Parliament and elections to introduce democracy and replace the old system whereby senior aristocrats controlled dozens of seats in parliament.
This sketch is from an issue of Punchprinted in November that year. Religion was a battleground during this era, with the Nonconformists fighting bitterly against the established status of the Church of England, especially regarding education and access to universities and public office.
Penalties on Roman Catholics were mostly removed. The Vatican restored the English Catholic bishoprics in and numbers grew through conversions and immigration from Ireland.
Houghton argues, "Perhaps the most important development in 19th-century intellectual history was the extension of scientific assumptions and methods from the physical world to the whole life of man.
The "Nonconformist conscience" of the Old group emphasised religious freedom and equality, the pursuit of justice, and opposition to discrimination, compulsion, and coercion.
The New Dissenters and also the Anglican evangelicals stressed personal morality issues, including sexuality, temperance, family values, and Sabbath -keeping.
Both factions were politically active, but until the midth century, the Old group supported mostly Whigs and Liberals in politics, while the New—like most Anglicans—generally supported Conservatives.
In the late 19th century, the New Dissenters mostly switched to the Liberal Party. The result was a merging of the two groups, strengthening their great weight as a political pressure group. They joined together on new issues especially regarding schools and temperance, with the latter of special interest to Methodists.
They could not hold most public offices, they had to pay local taxes to the Anglican church, be married by Anglican ministers, and be denied attendance at Oxford or degrees at Cambridge.
Dissenters demanded the removal of political and civil disabilities that applied to them especially those in the Test and Corporation Acts.
The Anglican establishment strongly resisted until It was a major achievement for an outside group, but the Dissenters were not finished and the early Victorian period saw them even more active and successful in eliminating their grievances. Only buildings of the established church received the tax money.
Civil disobedience was attempted but was met with the seizure of personal property and even imprisonment. · ‘The Victorian Writer’ magazine is a valuable resource for Writers Victoria members and aspiring writers across Australia.
Here’s what you can expect in ‘The Victorian Writer’ news and views from the writing world in-depth articles on all aspects of writing and publishing information on ph-vs.com · Her writing has appeared in numerous books and journals, including Victorian Literature & Culture, Dickens Studies Annual, the Victorian Review, the Journal of Literary & Cultural Disability Studies, Disability Studies Quarterly, and other ph-vs.com://ph-vs.com In the s through to the s, artists continued to set a pale hairless clean feminine ideal, representing youth, purity, and virtue.
(At the same time there was a “manliness” paragon, arising with the advent of organized sports, world exploration, and military prowess, so beards became popular.). "The Snowmen" is an episode of the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, first broadcast on Christmas Day on BBC One.
It is the eighth Doctor Who Christmas special since the show's revival and the first to be within a series. It was written by head writer and executive producer Steven Moffat and directed by Saul Metzstein.. The episode is set in the Victorian era and.
· Letter writing guides simultaneously advised writing with absolute feeling and being cautious about saying too much, or saying the wrong things, regardless of whether or not these wrong things had real feeling behind ph-vs.com://ph-vs.com Logie-Smith Lanyon have signed on as the presenting partner for this year's event -.