Classification[ edit ] Infant mortality rate IMR is the number of deaths per 1, live births of children under one year of age.
Vulnerable populations high risk mothers and infants, MD4 Nancy J. Prevention and control of influenza with vaccines: Vaccine virus strains included in the —14 U.
No preferential recommendation is made for one influenza vaccine product over another for persons for whom more than one product is otherwise appropriate. This information is intended for vaccination providers, immunization program personnel, and public health personnel.
These recommendations and other information are available at CDC's influenza website http: Vaccination and health-care providers should check the CDC influenza website periodically for additional information.
Introduction Influenza viruses typically circulate widely in the United States annually from the late fall through early spring.
During 30 seasons from the —77 season through the —06 season, estimated influenza-associated deaths ranged from 3, to 49, annually 4. Annual influenza vaccination is the primary means of preventing influenza and its complications. There are many types of influenza vaccines, and the naming conventions have evolved over time Box.
This report provides updated recommendations and guidance for vaccination providers regarding the use of influenza vaccines for the —14 season. Methods ACIP provides annual recommendations for the prevention and control of influenza.
Discussions include topics such as influenza surveillance, vaccine effectiveness and safety, vaccine coverage, program feasibility, cost-effectiveness, and vaccine supply. Presentations are requested from invited experts, and published and unpublished data are discussed.
For newly licensed influenza vaccines, discussion pertaining to new recommendations in this report included presentations of clinical data. For minor modifications to the recommendations for vaccination of persons with egg allergy, discussion included a review of influenza vaccine safety surveillance data from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System VAERS for the —13 season see Surveillance for Anaphylaxis Following Influenza Vaccination.
Information presented in this report reflects recommendations presented during public meetings of the ACIP and approved on February 21,and on June 20, Further updates, if needed, will be posted at CDC's influenza website http: Updated information and guidance in this document include the following: Several new, recently licensed vaccines will be available for the —14 season and are acceptable alternatives to other licensed vaccines indicated for their respective age groups.
These vaccines include the following: FluMist Quadrivalent is indicated for healthy, nonpregnant persons aged 2 through 49 years. A quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine IIV4; Fluzone Quadrivalent [Sanofi Pasteur, Swiftwater, Pennsylvania] will be available, in addition to the previous trivalent formulation.
RIV3, an egg-free vaccine, is now an option for vaccination of persons aged 18 through 49 years with egg allergy of any severity.
For persons with egg allergy who have no known history of egg exposure but for whom results suggestive of egg allergy have been obtained on previous allergy testing, consultation with a physician with expertise in the management of allergic conditions is recommended before vaccination.
Background and Epidemiology Biology of Influenza Influenza A and B are the two types of influenza viruses that cause epidemic human disease. Influenza A viruses are categorized into subtypes based upon characterization of two surface antigens: Influenza A virus subtypes and B viruses are further separated into groups on the basis of antigenic similarities.
New influenza virus variants emerge via frequent antigenic change i. Immunity to surface antigens, HA and NA, reduces likelihood of infection 7,8. Antibody against one influenza virus type or subtype confers limited or no protection against another type or subtype.
Moreover, antibody to one antigenic type or subtype of influenza virus might not confer immunity to a new antigenic variant of the same type or subtype 9.
Frequent emergence of antigenic variants through antigenic drift is the virologic basis for seasonal epidemics, and necessitates consideration for adjustment of vaccine viruses each season. Larger genetic changes, or antigenic shifts, occur among influenza A viruses, less frequently than antigenic drift events 6.
The new or substantially different influenza A virus subtypes resulting from antigenic shifts have the potential to cause pandemics when they cause human illness, because they are efficiently transmitted from human to human in a sustained manner, and there is little or no pre-existing immunity among humans 6.
In Aprilhuman infections with a novel influenza A H1N1 virus caused a worldwide pandemic. While not a new influenza A virus subtype, most humans had limited or no pre-existing antibody to key HA epitopes, and thus widespread transmission occurred.
This virus is antigenically distinct from human influenza A H1N1 viruses in circulation from through spring The HA gene is most closely related to that of contemporary influenza A viruses circulating among pigs during several preceding decades. This HA gene is believed to have evolved from the avian-origin pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus, which is thought to have entered human and swine populations at about the same time 10, Influenza B viruses are separated into two distinct genetic lineages Yamagata and Victoriabut are not categorized into subtypes.
Influenza B viruses undergo antigenic drift less rapidly than influenza A viruses Influenza B viruses from both lineages have co-circulated in most recent influenza seasons 13, The trivalent influenza vaccines available in recent seasons have contained one influenza B virus, representing only one lineage.Background.
The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (III) is a tool developed in a Western setting. Aim. To evaluate the development of a group of inner city children in South Africa with no neonatal risk factors using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (III), to determine an appropriate cut-off to define developmental delay, and to establish variation in scores.
The casomorphins in bovine milk appear to have opposite effects than that from human breast milk on infant development, but what about A2 cow’s milk?
Below is an approximation of this video’s audio content. To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr.
Greger may be. Background. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (III) is a tool developed in a Western setting.
Aim. To evaluate the development of a group of inner city children in South Africa with no neonatal risk factors using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (III), to determine an appropriate cut-off to define developmental .
Sector. Sub-Sector. Indicators Protection [Camp and Non-Camp] Protection (Outcome) Percentage of beneficiaries who report feeling satisfied by security levels in .
Risk, Resilience, and Adjustment of Individuals with Learning Disabilities. By: Gale M. Morrison and Merith A.
Cosden. Abstract. This article uses the concepts of risk and resiliency to frame our understanding of how having a learning disability affects nonacademic outcomes such as emotional adjustment, family functioning, adolescent . Persons using assistive technology might not be able to fully access information in this file.
For assistance, please send e-mail to: [email protected] Accommodation and the title of the report in the subject line of e-mail.